The word “Malappuram” (terraced place atop the hills) came to represent the present region only after the formation of the district, before it was called Eranad or Valluvanad
The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. From the time immemorial the port of Ponnani (sometimes roughly identified withTyndis) was a centre of trade with the Romans. After the Cheras, numerous powerful dynasties controlled the area, and by 9th century the region came to hands of the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Naircity states emerged called Valluvanad, Vettathunad, Parappanad, Nediyiruppu (the Zamorins) and more. But, from 13th century theSamoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to the whole of Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district. European colonial powers landed in Malabar in 15th century, and changed the course of the history. The petty vassals of theSamoothiris often allied with the foreign powers against their rule. In 18th century, the de facto rulers of Mysore kingdom, Hyder Ali andTipu Sultan, marched to Samoothiris’ districts.
Malappuram has seen participation in movements such as Khilafat Movement and Moplah ebellion in the early 20th century.
Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was a part of Malabar District in he Madras Presidency ofBritish India. The area covered by the present district was administered as part of Kozhikode, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk. Malabar District remained art of Madras state for some time after Indian independence. On 1 November 1956, Malabar District was merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in
the territorial jurisdiction of this tract took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was newly formed, taking portions of Eranad taluk and Ponnani taluks. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the newly formed Chavakkad taluk. The residuary portion constitutes presentdayPonnani taluk. Perinthalmanna Taluk was a new taluk formed out of the erstwhilePerinthalmanna Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur continued under Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk as well as Ponnani taluk under the Palakkad District. The new district of Malappuramwasformed with four taluks, Eranad Taluk, Perinthalmanna Taluk, Tirur Taluk and Ponnani Taluk, four statutory towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 95 panchayats. Two more taluks,namely Tirurangadi taluk and Nilambur taluk, were formed later by bifurcating Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk.
The district lies in northern Kerala and is bounded on the north by Wayanad and Kozhikkodedistricts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District, on the west by theArabian Sea, and on the northwest by Kozhikode District. At present Malappuram District consists of 2 revenue divisions, 6 taluks, 135 villages, 15blocks, 7 municipalities and 100 panchayats.
- Bharathapuzha (Nila)
- Chaliyar: On north of this district. Chaliyar has a length of 169 km and originates from Illambalieri hills in Tamil nadu, important tributaries of this river are Chalipuzha, Punnapuzha, Pandiyar, Karimpuzha, Cherupuzha and Vadapurampuzha. Chaliyar traverses through Nilambur, Mampad, Edavanna, Areekode, Vazhakkad and flows into t he sea at Beypore inKozhikode district. Of these rivers, only Chaliyar is perennial. The other rivers dry up in summer. This is one of the reasons that Malappuram district is prone to drought. Chaliyar Agitation under the leadership of K A Rahman is a success story of a people’s environmental movement in the state of Kerala. For the fight against river pollution in this land of rivers which continues in other parts of the state.
- River Kadalundi: Formed by the confluence of two rivers, the Olipuzha and Veliyar. Olipuzha originates form Cherakomban hill and Veliyar from Erattakomban hill. They flow through the Silent Valley and traverse through Eranad and Valluvanad regions, before flowing into the sea at Kadalundi. It passes through places like Melattur, Pandikkad, Malappuram, Panakkad, Parappur, Kooriyad and Tirurangadi. It has a circuit course of 130 km.
- Tirur River
In [Tirur] and [Ponnani taluk]s, backwaters like Biyyam, Veliyancode, Manur, and Kodinhi offer fishing and navigation facilities.
According to the 2011 census Malappuram district has a population of 4,110,956, roughly equal to the nation of Lebanon or the US state of Oregon. This gives it a ranking of 50th in India (out of a total of640). The district has a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000 / sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.39 %. Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 93.55 %. Muslims constitute the majority of the population, followed by the Hindu and Christian communities. A great majority of them are traditional Sunnis following the Shafi School of thought.
Malayalam is the main language of the district. Other languages used in the district include Allar, aDravidian language with 350 speakers; and Aranadan, also Dravidian, kept alive by the low education level of its 200 speakers.
Malappuram district has the most number of Legislative constituencies in the state. They are Malappuram,Majeri,Kondotty,Ernad,Mankada,Perinthalmanna,Tirurangadi,Vengara,Vallikkunnu,Tirur,Tanur,and Kottakkal.
Parliament Constituencies are Malappuram,Ponnani and Wayanad
There are six taluks(Listed below) and two revenue divisions namely Tirur and Perintalmanna .
GRAMA PANCHAYATS AND BLOCK PANCHAYATHS
There are 15 Block Panchayaths and 100 Grama panchayats in Malappuram District
Block Name Panchayaths
Malappuram Block Anakkayam, Morayur, Pokkottur, Kodur, Ponmala and Othukkungal.
Perumpadappu Block Perumpadappu, Alankode, Marancheri, Nannammukku and Veliyankode.
Tirur Block Purathoor, Thrippangode, Thalakkad, Vettom, Mangalam and Tirunavaya.
Tirurangadi Block Tirurangadi, parappanagadi, Vallikkunnu, Thenjippalam, Moonniyoor, Peruvalloor and Nannambra.
Vengara Block Vengara, AR Nagar, Parappur, Kannamangala, Oorakam, Edarikode and Thennala.
Tanur Block Tanur, Tanalur, Niramaruthoor, Ponmundam, Ozhur, Perumanna-Klari, Valavanoor an Cheriyamundom.
Kuttippuram Block Kuttippuram, Athavanadu, Kalapakancheri, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, Marakkara and Valanchery.
Mankada Block Mankada, Kuruva, Koottilangadi, Puzhakkattiri, Moorkkanad and MakkaraParamba.
Perintalmanna Block Aliparamba, Elamkulam, Thazkekode, Vettathur, Pulamanthole, Melattur, Keezhattur and Angadippuram.
Ponnani Block Edappal, Thavanur, Kaladi and Vattamkulam.
Areecode Block Areecode, Orngattiri, Kavanur, Keezhuparamba, Kuzhimanna, Edavanna, Cheekode and Pulpetta.
Kalikavu Block Kalikavu, Chokkadu, Karuvarakundu, Thuvvoor, Amarambalam, Karulai and Edappatta.
Kondotty Block Kondotty, Vherukavu, Muthuvalloor, Vazhayur, Vazhakkad, Pulikkal, Nediyiruppu, Pallikkal and Chelembra.
Wandoor Block Wandoor, Tiruvali, Mampad, Porur, Pandikkad and Thrikkalangode.
Nilambur Block Vazhikkadavu, Pothukal, Edakkara, Muthedam, Chungathra and Chaliyar.
The Municipalities in Malappuram District are:
ART AND CULTURE
Malappuram district has a good tradition in the field of art and culture. Many renowned writers and poets hail from this part of the land.Thunchath Ezhuthachan, honored as the father of modern Malayalam literature was born in Trikkandiyur near Tirur, almost 400 years ago. Mampuram is a historical place involved in anti-British rebellions in Malabar, especially the Moplah Rebellion of 1921. The grave of Mampuram Thangal is located here. It is also the birthplace of Omar Qazi, a Muslim scholar and a leader of anti-British movements. The family of Panakkad Thangals, the presidents of the Kerala state committee of the Indian Union Muslim League and supreme leaders of E. K. Sunni faction of the Muslims of Kerala is located at Panakkad. Kathakali Musician Kalamandalam Tirur Nambissan was born at Ezhoor.
Fairs And Festivals
With a number of temples, mosques & churches Malappuram bounds in fairs and festivals. Some important ones are given below.
Thirumandham kunnu pooram is an important temple festival of central Malabar. Thirumandham kunnu temple is said to be one among the three important Bhagavati temples of Kerala, the others being Kodungallur and Panayarakavu. The pooram festival is during March–April. The cultural feast is the most attractive feature of this festival. The seven day daily pooja attracts thousands of devotees. The famous Mangalya Pooja attracts young women in thousands, who come to pray for a good wedlock. Thirumandham kunnu is 2 km west of Perinthalmanna, in the Kozhikode-Palakkad state highway.
Kottakkal, the seat of Ayurvedic treatment is also famous for its temple festival. Kottakkal pooram, celebrated during March–April, is attractive for its cultural festivity. During the seven days, famous classical artists of the country perform here.
Nilambur Pattu is an ancient festival. Nilambur Kovilakam conducts it during January. Thousands gather to witness this weeklong celebration. The festival is related to ancient war and hunting. Tribal chieftains have important roles in the rituals.
Kondotty Nercha is a weeklong festival in March. The Nercha is conducted in Pazhayangadi Mosque of Kondotty, constructed in the 18th century AD. The tomb of Mohammed shah the Sufi exponent, is close to the mosque. It was constructed in Mughal style. The nercha has an inter-religious expression in its ‘Petty Varavu’. Thousands gather during the nercha, which assumes carnival proportion with hectic trade and amusements.
The Andu Nercha of Puthenpalli at Perumpadappu in the southwest border of the district is also famous. Lakhs of devotees attend this annual festival of the mosque. As a part of the festival, Ney Choru (Ghee Rice) is distributed to devotees and the poor.
Omanur Nercha is a famous mosque festival in Malappuram district, celebrated in memory of martyrs. Omaanur is 6 km away fromKondotty.
The Church festival at Malaparamba near Angadipuram is famous. Church festivals in pariyapuram, Chungathara and Edakkara in summer also attracts plenty of devotees.
Vairamkode Vela or Theeyaattu
Vairamkode, Vairamkode Vela (Temple Festival) is one of the famous temple festival in Malappuram district, Every year Month of February celebrating the festival. The festival lasting for 6 days (from Sunday to Friday), Procession is one of the main attractions of festival. A number of procession coming to Vairamkode with folk forms like Pootha, Thira, Kattalan, Pulikkali etc. from near villages and places most of procession carry Eratta Kala (the huge decorated effigies of bullocks).Fireworks are performed after midnight. Kanalattam (Devotees walking around and on live coal) performing early morning. Another main attraction of festival is village trade fair. The villagers bring their home made stuff such as Muram, Pullupaaya, Kaithola papaya, ulakka, Chooral, Manpathrangal etc. and the homemade sweets, snacks (pori, nurukku) to sell. The festival day fish market is famous, the fishermen bring the fishes from rivers and ponds which is rare to get normally.
Malappuram district is an industrially backward area. As on 31-03-2001, there were 11334 small industrial units with permanent registration. Out of them, 21.21 per cent are agro-based and 22.94 per cent are textile based. These units have a total investment of Rs. 176 cores and they provide
employment directly to 45200 people. The average investment per unit is Rs.1.55 lakhs. There are about 696 women’s industrial units and about Rs.1 core is spent annually for various industrial promotion schemes like investment subsidy, interest subsidy, self employment assistance, etc. in
the district. There are 25 medium industries of which only 11 are working which provide direct employment to 2,300 people. These units have a total capital investment of Rs. 46 cores. Among the medium undertakings, 3 are spinning mills.
There is one major industrial Estate (16 Industries and 8 mini industrial estate in the District – 51 working units) in the district. About 1,000 persons were assisted under PMRY scheme every year of self-employment scheme. Preliminary steps for establishing an industrial growth centre in 250 acres (1.0 km2) near panakkad, has been completed. There is a Kinfra Food Park and IT park have at Kakkancherry. There is also a rubber based common facility centre and industrial estate at Payyanad. The estate is spread in an area of 15.03 acres (60,800 m2), in which 32 plots have been given to entrepreneurs for rubber based units. 17 units function at present.
Wood related business are widely seen in Malappuram district. For e.g. at Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur andMampad; there are more than hundred wood related industries. Saw mills, furniture manufactures and timber sales are the most important business in Malappuram district.
The Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) has a branch office at Malappuram.
The district has recently emerged as a major healthcare destination in south Malabar. The town of Perintalmanna has four privately-owned specialty hospitals. They are Moulana Hospital, MES Medical College, Al-Shifa Hospital and EMS Co-operative Hospital. The state-owned General
Hospital (formerly, District Hospital) at Manjeri is an another major healthcare facility. Kottakkal has three main hospitals-the world famous Arya Vaidya Sala, Malabar Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS) and Al-Mas.Majeri District hospital has now been upgraded as Medical College
The Calicut International Airport is at Karippur in Malappuram district, 26 km away from Malappuram City.
Two railways lines, namely Mangalore-Madras and Nilambur – Shoranur Railway Line pass through the district. The former passes through the coastal areas and the latter through the eastern parts of the district.Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tirur, Tirunavaya andKuttippuram (from north to Sout h) are railway stations on the Mangalore-Madras line.Nilambur, Vaniyambalam, Thuvur, Melattur, Pattikkad, Angadipuram and Cherukara arerailway stations on the Nilambur – Shoranur Railway Line.
Bus Services are available to all centres and rural areas in the district. 93 schedules are operated by K.S.R.T.C on the main routes besides the 300 long route buses passing through the district. There are three K.S.R.T.C bus Stations(Malappuram Depot, Ponnani,Perinthalmanna and Nilambur).
The District has a good road network. National Highway 17 (India) (Renumbered as NH 66) enters the district at Idimuzhikkal in the north and runs through Calicut University, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Kuttipuram, Thavanur, Ponnani, Puduponnani, Veliyancode and ends at Kadikkad,having a length of 82 km. The road proceeds to Thrissur district in the South. National Highway 213 (India) (Renumbered as NH 966) enters at Iykarappadi near Ramanattukara and pass through Kondotty, Malappuram, Perinthalmanna and ends atKarinkallathani. The highway has a length of 68 km. Important State Highways like Tirur-Malappuram-Manjeri, Malappuram-Parappanangadi, Kozhikode-Nilambur-Gudalur road pass through the district. The district has a total of 208.178 km of State Highway and 1220.202 km of major district roads, 102 km of other district roads and 160 km of rural road. The Chaliyar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha rivers and their tributaries flow through the district necessitating the construction of a number of road bridges. Some of the bridges across these rivers are Kuttippuram bridge, Thutha bridge and Pulamanthole bridge acrossBharathapuzha bridges at Kottakadavu, Parakkadav, Thayyilakadav, Panampuzha, Koomankallu, Nooradi, Kottilangadi, Aanakkayam, Melattur, Kalikavu, Olipram Kadavu, Koomankallu, Kuzhipram Kadavu and Panakkadu bridges across Kadalundi River and bridges at Areekode, Edavanna, Mampad, Vadapuram, Myladi, Karimpuzha, Koorad, Kattadikadavu, Cherupuzha, Kadungallur and Poonkudi across the Chaliyar river and its tributaries and bridges at Edakulam, Thalakadathur, Tirur, Unniyal Mangattiri, Ettirikkadavu across Tirur river, Tanur bridge across T.N Canal.
The University of Calicut is located at Thenjipalam. There are 3 Education Districts, namely Tirur, Malappuram, Wandoor and 17 Sub Education districts in this District
1.M.E.S Medical College, Perinthalmanna
2.Manjeri General Hospital is planned to upgrad to Govt, Medical College
Ayurvedic Medical College
1. PSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal
1. MES Engineering College, Kuttippuram
2. Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Malappuram
3. M.E.S. Engineering College, Perinthalmanna
4. Veda Vyasa Institute of Technology, Karadparamba
5. Calicut University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Thenhipalam
1. SSM Polytechnic College, Tirur
2. Govt Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
3. Govt Polytechnic College, Tirurangadi.
4. Govt Women’s Polytechnic College, Kottakal
5. Technical High School Manjeri
6. THS Nannamukku
7. THS Kuttippuram
8. THS Vazhakkad (IHRD)
9. ITI Areacode
Arts and Science Colleges
1. Government College, Malappuram
2. Pookkoya Thangal Memorial Govt. Vollege, Perintalmanna
3. Thunchan memorial Govt. Vollege, vakkad, Tirur
4. Marthomas College Chungathara
5. MES College Valancheri
6. EME College Kondotty
7. Unity Women’s College Manjeri
8. PSMO College Tirurangadi
9. Dr. Gafoor Memmorial MES College Mampad
10. MES College Ponnani
11. NSS College Manjeri
Teacher Training Institutions
TTC- Government 2, Aided-3 and Unaided 23
BEd-Government Nil, Aided Nil, Unaided 15
The major tourist attractions of Malappuram are mentioned below:
Padinharekara Beach: This beach is located in Ponnani at the end of Tippu Sultan road. The beach offers a fascinating view of the adjoining point of river Bharathapuzha and Tirurpuzha with Arabian Sea.
Kadampuzha: Located in Melmuri village of Tirur taluk 3 kms to the north of Vettichira connecting the Calicut and Trissur districts. this temple is said to be established by Jagadguru Shankaracharya. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Bhagavathi.
Angadipuram: This is the place of a great importance located on the Madras-Calicut trunk road through which passes the Shornaur –Nilambur railway line. The place is famous for two temples of Thirumandhamkunnu and Tali.
Trikandiyur: The place is known for the ancient temple dedicated to lord Shiva. It is believed that the picture of Lord Shiva was installed by Parasurama. The place is situated nearer to the town of Tirur. Every year huge number of devotees visit this temple.
Valiya Juma Masjid Malappuram: This is a holy pilgrim centre of Muslims in Kerala. Annually a four day festival (nercha) is celebrated in April.
Apart from these major place there are various tourist destinations attracting tourists towards their fascination.